LogDevice is a distributed service that provides persistent storage and delivery of records organized in sequences called logs. For durability, copies of each record are stored across multiple servers and failure domains. LogDevice uses a novel technique called non-deterministic decentralized record placement in order to offer high write availability and consistently low write latencies even as some nodes in the cluster (or even entire failure domains, such as racks or data centers), suffer a total failure, or a severe drop in capacity or connectivity.
Log records are stored on storage nodes equipped with direct attached storage. The local storage layer of LogDevice is designed to deliver good performance on both SSDs and HDDs even if the number of logs hosted by the cluster is in the hundreds of thousands. The one read pattern that LogDevice is not optimized for and does not handle well is random reads of individual log records.
The consistency guarantees provided by a LogDevice log are what one would expect from a file, albeit a record-oriented one. Multiple writers can append records to the same log concurrently. All those records will be delivered to all readers of the log in the same order, namely the order of their LSNs. If a record was delivered to one reader, it will also be delivered to all readers encountering that LSN, barring unlikely catastrophic failures that result in the loss of all copies of the record.
LogDevice provides built-in data loss detection and reporting. Should data loss occur, the LSNs of all records that were lost will be reported to every reader that attempts to read the affected log and range of LSNs.
The LSNs of records synchronously appended to the same log by the same
logdevice::Client object are guaranteed to be monotonically
increasing. The order of LSNs assigned to records appended to the same
log by different writer processes, or by the same process through
logdevice::Client objects usually follows the rules of
causal consistency. However the causal consistency of writes may be
violated if network partitioning or node failure in the LogDevice
cluster forces the cluster to make the choice between write
availability (completing an append and assigning an LSN to it) and
causal consistency. In those rare cases we decided to have LogDevice
choose availability over consistency, as this is almost always the
preferred choice for Facebook workloads. Support for making individual
logs sequentially consistent (which implies causal) by giving up a
degree of write availability is currently in the works.
No ordering guarantees are provided across logs. The LSNs of records from different logs are not comparable.
Non-deterministic record placement
It's good to have options. Having a large number of placement options for record copies improves write availability in a distributed storage cluster. Similar to many other distributed storage systems, LogDevice achieves durability by storing several identical copies of each record (typically two or three) on different machines. With many placement options for those copies you can complete writes even if a lot of storage nodes in your cluster are down, slow, or out of disk space, as long as the part of the cluster that is up can still handle the load. You can also accommodate spikes in the write rate on a single log by spreading the writes over all the nodes available. Conversely, if a particular log or record is restricted to just a few specific nodes, the maximum throughput of a single log will be limited by the capacity of those nodes, and the failure of just a few nodes may cause all writes on some logs to fail.
The principle of maximizing placement options for incoming data is employed by many successful distributed file systems. In Apache HDFS for instance a data block can be placed on any storage node in the cluster, subject to the cross-rack and space constraints enforced by the centralized metadata repository called the name node. In Red Hat Ceph data placement is controlled by a multi-valued hash function. The values produced by the hash function provide multiple placement options for an incoming data item. This eliminates the need for a name node but cannot quite reach the same level of placement flexibility.
LogDevice, with its focus on log storage, takes a different approach to record placement. It provides a level of placement flexibility equivalent to that offered by a name node without actually requiring a name node. Here is how this is accomplished. First, we decouple the ordering of records in a log from the actual storage of record copies. For each log in a LogDevice cluster LogDevice runs a sequencer object whose sole job is to issue monotonically increasing sequence numbers as records are appended to that log. The sequencer may run wherever it is convenient: on a storage node, or on a node reserved for sequencing and append execution that does no storage.
Once a record is stamped with a sequence number, the copies of that record may potentially be stored on any storage node in the cluster. Their placement will not affect the order of records in which all readers see the records of that log. We just need to make sure that readers can efficiently find and obtain the copies. We use the term copyset for the set of storage nodes on which the copies of a particular record are stored. The copyset is selected at random, using a weighted uniform distribution, and a replication policy.
The replication policy for a log includes at least the replication factor R, typically 2 or 3. A fault tolerant replication policy may mandate the placement of copies in at least two hierarchical failure domains, such as racks, data centers, or regions. In order to improve batching the sequencer may continue to use the same copyset for a large number of consecutive records in the log, as long as the writes on the copyset successfully complete. This technique is called sticky copysets. It effectively groups records on storage nodes in large variable size blocks.
A client that wishes to read a particular log contacts all storage nodes that are permitted to store records of that log. That set, called the nodeset of the log, is usually kept smaller than the total number of storage nodes in the cluster. The nodeset is a part of the log’s replication policy. It can be changed at any time, with an appropriate note in the log’s metadata history. The readers consult that history in order to determine the storage nodes to connect to. LogDevice stores the history of changes to the nodeset of a log in a special internal log called the metadata log. There is one metadata log for each data log provisioned on the cluster.
Nodesets allow LogDevice clusters to stay efficient as the cluster grows by limiting the number of nodes with which the readers of a particular log must communicated. Nodes contacted by a reader client deliver record copies to it by pushing them into TCP connections as fast as they can. Naturally, the header of each record includes the record's sequence number. The LogDevice client library performs the reordering and occasional de-duplication of records in order to ensure that records are delivered to the reader application in the order of their LSNs.
While this placement and delivery scheme is great for write availability and handling spiky write workloads, it would not be very efficient for file workloads that often include many point reads. For log reading workloads, which are largely sequential, it is quite efficient. All storage nodes contacted by a reader will likely have some records to deliver. No IO and network resources are wasted. LogDevice ensures that only one copy of every record is read from disk and delivered over the network by including the copyset in the header of every record copy.
A simple server-side filtering scheme called single-copy delivery (SCD) guarantees that in steady state only one node in the copyset would read and deliver a copy of each record to a particular reader. SCD is based on copysets and a dense copyset index maintained by the local log store of each storage node.
As shown in Figure 1, the sequence numbers of records in LogDevice are not integers, but pairs of integers. The first component of the pair is called the epoch number, the second one is offset within epoch. The usual tuple comparison rules apply.
In code, the LSN is defined as an 8 byte integer. The high 4 bytes contain the epoch and the low 4 bytes are the offset.
The use of epochs in LSNs is another write availability optimization. When a sequencer node crashes or otherwise becomes unavailable, LogDevice must bring up replacement sequencers for all of the affected logs. The LSNs that each new sequencer starts to issue must be strictly greater than the LSNs of all records already written for that log. Epochs allow LogDevice to guarantee this without actually looking at what has been stored. When a new sequencer comes up, it receives a new epoch number from the metadata component called the epoch store. The epoch store acts as a repository of durable counters, one per log, that are seldom incremented and are guaranteed to never regress. Today we use Apache Zookeeper as the epoch store for LogDevice. In principle, any durable and highly available data store that supports conditional atomic writes will do.
The use of epochs allows a new sequencer to start processing appends after just two roundtrips to the epoch store. This normally takes no more than a few milliseconds and is a fraction of a typical failure detection interval.
Drives fail. Power supplies fail. Rack switches fail. As these failures occur the number of available copies decreases for some or all records. When after several consecutive failures that number drops to zero we have data loss or at least a temporary loss of read availability of some records. Both are bad outcomes that LogDevice tries to avoid as much as possible. Rebuilding creates more copies of records that have become under-replicated (have fewer than the target number of copies R) after one or more failures.
In order to be effective, rebuilding has to be fast. It must complete before the next failure takes out the last copy of some unlucky record. LogDevice implements a many-to-many rebuilding protocol. All storage nodes act as both donors and recipients of record copies.
LogDevice does not rely on a name node for rebuilding coordination. All nodes use server-side filtering based on copysets in order to independently decide which records to re-replicate and where to place new copies. All rebuilding coordination is fully distributed and is performed over an internal highly replicated metadata log that we call the event log.
LogsDB: the local log store
The separation of sequencing and storage helps allocate the aggregate CPU and storage resources of the cluster to match the changing, sometimes spiky workload. However, the per-node efficiency of a distributed data store is largely determined by its local storage layer. In the end multiple record copies must be saved on non-volatile devices, such as hard drives or SSDs. RAM-only storage is impractical when storing hours worth of records at 100MBps+ per node. When backlog duration is measured in days and the ingest rate is high, hard drives are far more cost efficient than flash. This is why we designed the local storage layer of LogDevice to perform well not only on flash, with its huge random IOPS capacity, but also on hard drives. Commodity HDDs can push a respectable amount of sequential writes and reads (100-200MBps), but top out at 100-140 random IOPS.
We called the local log store of LogDevice LogsDB. It's a write-optimized data store that's designed to keep the number of disk seeks small and controlled, and the write and read IO patterns on the storage device mostly sequential.
As their name implies, write-optimized data stores aim to provide great performance when writing data, even if it belongs to multiple files or logs. The write performance is achieved at the expense of read efficiency in some access patterns. In addition to performing well on HDDs, LogsDB is particularly efficient for log tailing workloads, a common pattern of log access where records are delivered to readers soon after they are written. The records are never read again, except in rare emergencies: those massive backfills that I mentioned earlier. The reads are then mostly served from RAM, making the reduced read efficiency of a single log irrelevant.
LogsDB is a layer on top of RocksDB, an ordered, durable, key-value data store based on LSM trees. LogsDB is a time-ordered collection of RocksDB column families, which are full-fledged RocksDB instances sharing a common write-ahead log. Each RocksDB instance is called a LogsDB partition.
All new writes for all logs, be it one log or a million, go into the most recent partition, which orders them by (log id, LSN), and saves them on disk in a sequence of large sorted immutable files, called SST files. This makes the write IO workload on the drive mostly sequential, but creates the need to merge data from multiple files when reading records. Reading from multiple files may lead to read amplification, or wasting some read IO.
LogsDB controls read amplification in a way uniquely suited for the log data model, with its immutable records identified by immutable LSNs monotonically increasing with time. Instead of controlling the number of sorted files by compacting (merge-sorting) them into a bigger sorted run, LogsDB simply leaves the partition alone once it reaches its maximum number of SST files, and creates a new most recent partition.
Because partitions are read sequentially, at no time does the number of files to read concurrently exceed the maximum number of files in a single partition (usually about 20), even if the total number of SST files in all partitions reaches tens of thousands. Space is reclaimed efficiently by deleting (or, infrequently, compacting) the oldest partition.